the Jleronautlcdl morld.

MONTGOi-FIER - SANTOS 0UMQK7 VON lEPPEUhJ

Vol. I.

GLENVILLE, O., U.S.A., August 1, 1902.

No. I.

Yearly Subscription, Foreig-n "

$1.50. 2.50.

Single Copies,

.15.

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CONTENTS.

Page. Front Page. 3&4 4, 5 & 6

7

Past, Present, and Future, (Illustration)

Editorials,

The Conquest of the Air by Man, The Aerial Transit of Man,

The Fallacy of Balloons, 8

A Simple Aerial Machine, 8

How to Fly, 9

Laws and Conditions Governing Practical Air Ships, 9

Digest of Recent Aeronautical Literature, . 10

That Air Ship 10

Leo Stevens Thinks he can Beat Dumont, . 11

Aerial Navigation by Bodies Heavier Than Air, 12 Scientific Aspect of M. Santos Dumont's Experiments, 13

The War Balloon in South Africa, ... 11

Photography From a Balloon, ... 11

Dr. Barton's Air Ship, 15

Sounding the Air, . 16

Page.

Notes, Jottings and World's Aerial News Briefly Told.— Spies' Flying Machine— G. Fairs' Air Ship— A Serious Loss to the Cause- Mr. Pilcher's Effects— The Aeronautical Jour- nal—Claims to Priority— International Balloon Ascents Santos Dumont A Wind Locomo- tive—A Simple Machine on Sound Lines Air- ships for the World's Fair Airship Builders- Division of World's Fair Prize— Whitehead's Experiment— Leo Stevens' Dirigible Balloon A Machine en a New J- rinciple— A Trial Trip— A Prolific Aerial Inventor, Etc., . . 17 to 23

Notes 23

British Patents 23

American Patents 23

Foreign Aeronautical Periodicals, ... 21

^ De Jfcronautical morld.

PUBLISHED MONTHLY

. . BY . .

THE AERONAUTICAL WORLD COMPANY,

GLENVILLE, OHIO, U. S. A.

THE

Aeronautical World.

Vol. I. GlknviIvIvK, O., U. S. A., August i, 1902. No. i.

The Aeronauticaiv WorIvD

Is a Monthly Journal devoted entirely to Aeronautical Subjects. It is published on the Last Saturday of each month

BY

THE AERONAUTICAL WORLD COMPANY,

GI,ENVII.I<K, OHIO.

Terms of Subscription.

United States, Canada and Mexico $150

Single Copies 15

Foreign Countries 2.50

Fore-gn Single Copies . . .25

Jl^" All edilorial comfnuiiications should be addressed lo the Editor, and those respecting advertisements to the Publishers, Aeronautical World, Glenville, O., U. S. A.

THE AERONAUTICAL WORLD.

This journal will devote its space to the vastly grand, universally interesting and sur- passingly important subject of Aeronautics, which is to-day deservedly attracting so much general and anxious attention throughout the world.

The aims and efforts of the journal will be directed to the setting forth of all facts, theor- ies, discoveries, experiments and all matter of importance or thought of value, or likely to be of interest to its readers, and strong legit- imate efforts will be made to create a greater and more general interest in, and further ad- vance the science by doing everything possible to encourage and promote the study. Space will be given for the free interchange of views, mutual instruction, advice, correspondence, and questions and answers on all aeronautical subjects.

A brief history of the most successful ma- chines will be given with reasons for their success, partial success or failures, and all things worthy of recording will be chronicled in its pages, so that the Aeronauticai. World may become a complete, progressive history of the conquest of the air by man.

All matters will be recorded in a simple, clear and concise manner, so that readers may acquire with agreeable ease and pleasure and the utmost facihty the greatest amount of

good sound general knowledge, and much use- ful information relating to aeronautics.

The pages will be filled with authentic, help- ful intelligence, including facts, theories, fig- ures, suggestions and lessons, which will, it is hoped, make the Aeronautical World not only a technical journal and magazine, but an elementary text book and scientific guide, and in the end a valuable treatise on the subject.

It will further aim to stimulate pubhc in- terest in aeronautics and remove the prejudices and skepticism too generally prevailing.

A journal such as this, which will record the world's progress and all that transpires from day to day, everywhere in this vast and im- portant field of science, is specially desirable, but more particularly so just at this time, as interest in this great and vast subject is not confined to any particular class or any section of the community, but the whole human race is more or less desirous of acquiring informa- tion, and we hope to be able, with assistance from our readers, to make the Aerial World the medium through which everyone may be able to obtain it.

Co-opEration.

To this end the editor solicits the kindly aid and co-operatic-n of all those able to supply information or make suggestions, and all those seeking advice, the editor cordially invites to write and freely receive the best he and his staff may be able to offer.

Correction oe Serious Misconception and Errors.

The Aeronautical World hopes to prevent others from experiencing the costly failures and the trying experiences of those who have worked in the wrong direction, and to correct the many mistatements which have unfortu- nately been so universally disseminated, and done so much to retard progress by making the world so skeptical of the possibilities of aerial navigation.

A few good simple illustrations would doubtless convert many of these skeptics to the correct belief, that practical aerial navigation is a possibility infinitely easier of accomplish- ment than is generally supposed, and such

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illustrations the Aeronautical World hopes to give.

It is the general belief of the most eminent scientists, thinkers, experimenters and work- ers on the problem, that successful aerial nav- igation is possible and simply awaits the de- velopment of a properly designed machine.

Divided Among Themselves. Unfortunately, perhaps, for the good cause, scientists, aeronauts, experimenters and inven- tors are very greatly divided in their views as to the best means of obtaining aerial naviga- tion. Amongst them are those who advance the theory that machines which are very much lighter than the volume of air they displace, are the only kind practically possible, as ex- emplified bv a balloon driven by some me- chanical motor, as the airships of Renard, Gifford, Tessandier, Krebs, Santos Dumont, Zeppelin, etc., while there are others who main- tain that an aeroplane system, vastly heavier than the air it displaces, driven through the atmosphere by a mechanical motor at consider- able speed, is the only feasible one as repre- sented by the aeroplane machines of Langley, Maxim, Chanute, Alexander, Irish, LiHionthal, etc. Then there are those who advocate a 7nule arrangement, or a machine which com- bines the light aerostat and the heavy aero- plane, which will in air appear to have little or no weight, such as the machines of Stevens, Barton, etc. The advocates of this mule sys- tem also claim that it affords the only prac- tically sound means by which men can hope to navigate the air. A vast number of other ma- chines have been designed, ranging from the most simple aerostat to the most complicated mule combination, and from the dual combina- tion to the most simple aeroplane. The front page illustration, past, present, and future, represents the three main types of machines and the three great steps in the progress of the art of flight. ,

The DiEFICULtlES. As the practical difficulties of steam and elec- trical railroads, the steamships, telegraph and telephone, etc., have all been overcome or swept away, so are all the practical difficulties in the way of submarine navigation, wireless telegra- phy and aerial navigation being swept away.

The Conquest of the Air by Man.

By W. E. I.

High Balloon Ascent.— Dr. Suring and Berson ascended from Berlin to a height of 35,000 feet, thus beating all previous records.

It is not the present intention to do more than set forth some of the many advar^tages of the gliding flight of man, as a bird when sailing on the air, the possibility of which has been proved beyond question by practical de- monstrations, which crown man undisputed monarch of the atmosphere as well as the earth and seas.

What can possibly be conceived more worthy of the attention of man, than his power to navigate the air after the manner of a bird. It would do more than anything else conceiv- able to improve his condition morally, physic- ally and intellectually, and be the greatest help in his struggle for existence.

Such machines are destined to open up a grand, new, and wonderful era in the world's history and make mankind much more cos- mopolitan. They would sow the seeds of morals and enlightenment and plant the tree of knowledge everywhere and leave no spot on earth outside the pale of civilization. They would buoy up the weak, inspire new hopes in the afflicted and greatly benefit everyone. They will be the means of equally distributing man- kind over the earth's surface, relieving over- populated districts and peopling the uninhab- ited portions of the earth's surface They would be the mainspring of commercial activity, chris- tian mission and the unity of mankind. They will lead to an equal distribution of the pro- ducts of the soil, the seas, and the manufactur- ers, and likewise relieve and benefit the fam- ine stricken and the glutted markets. They would be available at all seasons for making short cuts between points anywhere on the earth's surface. They would greatly help in magnetic, electric, meteorologic and astronomic observations, weather forecasting and weather controlling and otherwise aid in the further in- terrogation of nature. They would do more than anythmg else to promote friendly and commercial intercourse and remove all barriers from between the peoples of the earth. These are only a few of the very many and great ad- vantages an aerial machine would afford.

The gliding flight of man will be the dawn of a new era, at the dawn of a new century, and its advent will create such a revolution as the world has never before witnessed. Think for a moment of its vast possibilities and you are staggered by their magnitude.

The aerial machine is destined tg dominate

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over the aflfairs of man, bring mankind into closer and more amicable relations, and vastly increase his happiness, comfort, prosperity and knowledge.

Aerial navigation has been the study of man from remotest antiquity, before, during and ever since the dark ages, yet up to 1900 A. D. little progress had been made in this, the most important of all aids to his happiness and prosperity. But as the locomotive and electric motor superseded the horse, the automobile the velocipede, and the steamships the sailing vessel, so are they in turn destined to be super- seded by the aerial machine, which possesses enormous advantages over them all.

Eminent authorities no longer question the possibility of aerial navigation, for they now realize that man should more easily travel in air than on land or water, and they consider the solution was to be found, as it has been, in an aeroplane machine and motive power.

Santos Dumont, Count Zeppeline, Renard and many others have proved the possibility of directing and propelling balloons to a very limited extent, but such contrivances can never be of much general utility until very considera- bly modified.

Although the atmosphere offers the greatest possible facility for rapid transit by means of aerial machines, the efforts to accomplish suc- cessful aerial transit by means of balloons is simply wasted, fcT such devices are contrary to the economics of nature and mechanics. If these efforts vainly directed to accomplish eco- nomical universal transport through the air in all directions by means of balloons, were devoted to aeroplanes, the difficulties and cost would be considerably less and the possibili- ties of success infinitely greater, for the princi- ple of the aeroplane is in accord with the laws of nature and mechanics as the numberless ex- amples presented by all creatures that fly testify.

To be able to invade the aerial regions and fly anywhere and everywhere with the graceful ease, quick decision, speed and safety of a bird, while gratiously harnessed to the always avail- able, free and inexhaustible forces of nature, has for thousands of years been one of the greatest ambitions of man- -and no wonder for there is nothing within his ability to con- trive or within the power of his imagination to conceive, which would render such valuable service or impart such supreme pleasure to mankind, as his power to fly and enjoy life on the glorious aerial ocean.

If, as eminent scientists aver, the flight of man not floatatic^n as in a balloon is possible by means of aeroplanes, then man's ingenuity should be capable of devising some such con- trivance. He has successfully accomplished the feat of travelling and remaining for con- siderable time under the surface of the briny ocean, the dangers and difficulties of which appear vastly greater than would be incidental to attempts at aerial flight, but the advantages of the sub-marine boat would be infinitely small in comparison with those of the gliding aerial machine.

Aerial navigation performed glidingly after the manner of a bird in sailing flight, under the intelligent and complete control of man. governed instinctively by impulsive and natural movements of his body, as employed to main- tain his equilibrium in athletic, equestrian and other exercises would give him command ot the boundless expanse of the atmosphere as well as the seas and lands of this globe, and place at his disposal the use of the free forces of nature which would furnish the power to support and gracefully transport him any- where, over the perfectly level, smooth, elastic, limitless aerial highway, as lord and conque- ror of the wonderful aerial world and supreme master over earth and seas.

Here man elevated above the masses could enjoy the invigorating influence of a pure at- mosphere, sunny sky, restful silence and the most delightful seclusion, all C'f which would impart to him renewed life and energy, and new and peculiar, 5'et undefinable pleasures, far beyond his past experiences or his mind's conception.

While thus luxuriating, lounging and bask- ing in the sunshine of pleasure, in a shielded car, casting his shadow over church spire and mountain top, he could view and supremely enjoy the enchanting spectacle and the glorious splendors of the ever varying landscape, and the many diversified pictures of nature, and the wonderful works of nature and man as they pass in review below% while all around him he would find an endless number of new and strangely interesting and marvelous mysteries, ready to feed his intelligent mind with new and delightful crumbs of knowledge.

Unlike railroad trains, these aerial craft will have unlimited range over the unlimited zone, and be perfectly free to glide smoothly, with- out shock or vibration, anywhere in the bound- less expanse of the aerial ocean, unobstructed by mountains, valleys, jungles, or deserts, or

THE AERONAUTICAL WORLD.

by rivers, seas, lakes or oceans, independent of bridges, tunnels, cuttings, viaducts, rails or permanent way of any kind, and therefore free from the enormous outlay incidental to them, and quite regardless of the conformation or inequalities of the earth's surface;, or the condition of the weather. The aerial machine also offers innumerable advantages over steam- ships or sailing ships, which are strictly con- fined to the surface of water, and have to travel partially immersed in and plough through two vastly unequal elements air and water which differ one from the other eight hundred times in weight and greatly in density and resistance. These two unequal elements frequently contend and often unite to exert their tremendous forces as wind and tide tempest and turbulent sea— sometimes favora- bly, but more often adversely, to the ship's progress.

The fury of these elementary forces with their power to overcome vast resistances and opposing influences necessitates the employ- ment of enormously strong and heavy hulls to the ships, the carrying of a vast dead weight as ballast and the expenditure of prodigious mechanical power to overcome the resistances caused thereby, so as to make headway, and these entail a vast investment of capital as well as labor, whereas the infinitely lighter aerial machine, which need be no more limited in size and carrying capacity, will travel in the one light element, air, anywhere above and within a few miles of the earth's surface, bur- dened with no useless dead weight ballast, weighty hulls, large crews, or great horizontal resistance.

Such machines may be sustained and pro- pelled free of cost by the unbalanced forces of nature, which are always at their disposal, but if desired they may be assisted by mechan- ical power, at trifling expense.

Thus all the requisites for successful and practical aerial navigation without limit to size, speed, or carrying capacity of craft, with all its Hnlimited advantages, can be obtained for a comparatively insignificant monetary in- vestment.

Aerial navigation by means of gliding ma- chines is no Utopian idea but ^ sound prac- tical reality, and one which will greatly help to solve the big problem of political economy.

The light elastic properties of air make it an ideal medium for economical transit whether for heavy or light loads or high or low speeds, although all successful aerial

machines will be much heavier than the atmos- phere they displace.

Shortly an aerial machine will be described which will smoothly and serenely glide in and upon the atmosphere, in which it will ascend, descend, turn and perform all the most simple manoeuvers of a bird, with nearly its easy grace, perfect safety and animated activity. It responds as promptly obedient to every im- pulsive movement of the intelligent ballast at the center of gravity which controls it, as an instinctively directed natural denizen of the atmosphere.

The gliding aerial machine is not wafted about and at the mercy of the capricious winds as is a balloon, but it is as perfectly under the control of the aeronaut as the bicycle is under the control of its rider.

Balloons displace a greater volume of air than equals their weight and thus obtain sup- port, whereas the gliding aerial machine is many hundred times heavier than the volume of the atmosphere it displaces, except in tran- sit, when at a given velocity the upward pres- sure of the atmosphere on the aero-surfaces will equal the downward force of gravity, and weight of machine, and thus it is in ac- cord with every example of flight to be found in nature. Thus, then, while the balloon de- pends for support upon a light gas, the glid- ing machine relies for support on speed. Every living creature that travels upon the air testifies to the soundness of, the lines upon which the aerial gliding machine is construc- ted, but in all the wondrous and infinitely numerous designs of nature we find no ex- amples that are in any way comparable to the balloon, except as existing in fish and other aquatic creatures. It may be said that neither is there anything in nature resembling the locomotive, electric motor, etc. This may be correct, so far as it relates to their special design and method of applying their power, but the world abounds in examples embodying the same principles , which are vastly more economical than any designed and constructed by the art of man.

Kekp Posted cn thk R.^pid Progress of

Aerial Navigation. The Aeronautical World is full of interest- ing matter relating to balloons, airships and aerial inventions. To keep posted on the rapid progress now being made in mechanical flight, read the Aeronautical World.

THE AERONAUTICAL WORLD.

The Aerial Transit of Man.

BY W. E. I.

Few people to-day have any true conception of the enormous possibiHties of aerial naviga- tion for general transit and other purposes, in war and peace, as well as in the arts and sci- ences and commercial, domestic and social ser- vice. Apparent insurmountable barriers have been removed, the unattainable has once again, as so often before, been attained, and one of the greatest desires of man since his creation accomplished, without cheating gravity, the laws of nature, or the common practice and laws of mechanics, but instead utiHzing them and the forces of nature transformed to im- part, support and motion to machines carrying man in air. In the vast aerial space enclosing this globe man can now glide in perfect safety at any desired altitude, in any direction and at any desired speed, from continent to continent, to pastures new, regardless of wind or weather. Here he can travel easily, agreeably, luxur- iously and economically, and while thus jour- neying below the clouds he can view and enjoy the ever varying and enchanting scenery and vast grandeur of nature at the earth's surface, seen as one immense, magnificent, moving picture, brimful of delightful and agreeable surprises, which thrill and elevate the soul and impart unalloyed joyous pleasures, which are new and delightful, and only thus attainable; or sailing through cloudland where he can enjoy, among the clouds, wonderful views of phantom formed mountains, valleys, deserts, ruins, lakes, seas, forests, cities and castles, and enjoy all the enchantment these phantom pictures and fantastical dissolving views af- ford; or gliding above the clouds in silent sohtude, where nature is all tranquiHty and where the aspect of the intensely blue firma- ment is new and impressively magnificent, and there enjoy the sublime grandeur of the un- veiled canopy of heaven, or quietly and safely watch and observe the effects of the grand and imposing fury of the hurricane below, or the awe inspiring violence of the electrical storm, the cloudburst, waterspout or sand- spout, or the curious and astonishing sight of the phantom cloud-mountains, forests, rivers, etc., silently meeting and disappearing one within the other, as a mountain or city en- gulphed in a sea and other such "Pepper's Ghost" illusions.

In this charming and magnificent etherial paradise the aeronaut, perfectly free, and un-

shackled, may examine the gorgeous tints and harmonies of the foilage, the beauties of the landscape or the special grandeur of the rising or setting sun, which are greatly enhanced by his high elevation. Here he may one minute examine the lofty peak of some previously in- accessible mountain and the next with equal delight, some dark, direful, yawning abyss, the sight of which ordinarily would be enough to create in him the greatest trepidation, but instead of being overwhelmed with fear, he now makes his inspection, serene and happy and perfectly free from every unpleasant sen- sation of dread, giddiness, sea-sickness, depres- sion of spirits, or faintness, for gliding flight removes all depressing influences, buoys up the spirits, imparts activity and strength to the mind and body, while it delights all the senses beyond the power of expression.

Transportation will enormously and rapidly increase as a result of aerial navigation, as producers and consumers all over the world will have a main and direct highway and easy and rapid access to all the markets. Thus the gliding aerial machine is evidently destined to become the most popular and economical means of rapid transit for all persons and all purposes.

A few successful public flights is all that is necessary to interest all mankind and instill general confidence in its practicability, utility, safety and economy. It is the greatest gift ever conferred on mankind, as calmly sailing in the atmosphere man will be able to enjoy a taste of that perfect liberty which previously he had only heard or dreamed of.

As the speed of aerial transit may reach several miles a minute man will practically be able to annihilate space and circumnavigate and explore the whole surface of this globe with independence, ease, dispatch and economy, or travel from pole to pole, or wherever his fancy may dictate, unhampered by restrictions of any kind.

While comfortably seated or reclining or standing at ease in his car, shielded from the direct effect of the wind, rain and the rays of the sun, yet having a clear and unobstructed view, often extending one hundred miles in radius, far away from the madding crowd, igno- ble strife, and the busy haunts of man, and free from the noisy bustle and confusion, and the dirt, dust and bad odors of restricted and con- gested thoroughfares, with which on the earth's surface he is always more or less in contact, and far too familiar with. Here he

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can soar and manoeiiver in perfect bliss with a serenity such as he can never experience on the earth's surface.

It is here that man, as an aerial voyager, can enjoy a taste of heavenly bliss, exhilaration of spirits and freedom from cares and anxie- ties such as he never before enjoyed or thought possible.

By this means of rapid transit man will be greatly benefited physically, morally, intellec- tually, socially and financially, while always enjoying the benefits of the sovereign remedy and restorative pure air and change of climate and scenes. Prof. Tyndall said, "We live in the sky." This and future generations may say, "We live in the air."

oo

The Fallacy of Buoyant Machines. By W. E.

Man long ago succeeded in making a contriv- ance whereby he could support himself in air after the manner of a thistle or milkweed seed, as, however, the balloon must always be more or less at the mercy of the winds, in spite of the fact that Santos-Dumcnt succeeded with his dirgible balloon in carrying away the prize for aeronautical navigation, their usefulness must ever remain very limited, while their cost will ever continue to be exceedingly great as com- pared with aeroplane machines having the same carrying capacity.

Gas inflated balloons of every conceivable form and description have been equipped with motors and propellers of every kind, in the hope of navigating them. Such contrivances may certainly be made to overcome the force of gravity for a time, and even the great hori- zontal resistance of a calm atmosphere, but whether any conceivable form of aerostat driven by mechanical power would be able to withstand and overcome even a light adverse wind, to be of general utility, still remains a very doubtful problem.

Yet after this manner scores of experiment- ters have hoped, and many still expect, to achieve success. Although under favorable conditions several have succeeded in directing their flimsy, bulky, and ungainly contrivances to a limited extent, but their successes are only of scientific interest, their machines being far too costly, unreliable, and slow for any general utility service.

The practical and economical value of such combinations can easily be tested, at little cost of money and time, by properly securing to a pigeon a small gas inflated balloon, buoy-

ant enough to support itself and bird in the air. The two are carefully united to form a complete system, but so as not to interfere with the freedom of the pigeon's wings or its muscular movements. When released, the bird buoyed up by the atmosphere, will make strong efforts to fly, but if it ever reaches its home alive, unless during perfect calm, and over an exceedingly short course, in very slow time, then there may be in the distant future, some hope of practical success, with the help of considerable im- provements, for those who advocate aerial transit by such means.

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A Simple Aerial Machine.

A flying kite is simply a captive aeroplane machine, oscillated about its axis by several contending forces. These forces constantly work to intermittently perform their respec- tive functions, but just as one force is on the point of prevailing, it creates and brings into play new factors and new forces, which neu- tralize and overcome it. Then just when these new forces are on the point of prevail- ing, they, likewise, create new conditions, which destroy their power and, so on does this circle of events continue so long as the kite remains in air. The results of all this is an irregular, sea-saw motion, in which the string limits the oscillating of the kite on its axis.

Now if a man, as an integral part of a free kite in air. could maintain the same oscillat- ing motion as imparted by the taut string of a tethered kite, he would demonstrate the practicability of the aeroplane. The ques- tion then arises, is it possible for a man, when so situated, to weaken and C'verpower the force tending to prevail, immediately be- fore it actually predominates ?

The writer knows from experiments that it is not only possible, but as easy of accom- plishment as for a cyclist to maintain his equilibrium on his travelling machine. That being the case, what further is requisite to make aerial navigation, by means of aero- planes, practical ? To this question the writer's answer is nothing more than a simple and properly constructed areoplane machine, and an intelligent, cool, cautious, man, pos- sessing the courage to make the first at- tempt. It would be simply necessary for the aeronaut to move his body and center of gravity of the system, so as to vary the resis-

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tance and inclination of. this aero-surface against the force of the wind, the horizontal pressure of the atmosphere, the attractive force of the earth or the upward pressure of the air, and this he would do instinctively as in walk- ing, running, or riding, etc. Thus he would transform the force of gravity into horizontal, or progressive motion, and utilize the wind, whatever its direction, for lift and advance- ment, and the upward pressure of the atmos- phere, for sustainment. To emphasize the above, the statement is repeated in another way, thus : If a person forming a low down center of gravity, and a part of a kite-like contrivance supported in air, will render the same simple service as the boy on the ground and the kite string, by swaying his body back and forth of the axis of the system, and so change the position of the center of gravity and alter the angle of incidence of the aeropane relatively to and against the op- posing forces, he will be able to ascend, de- scend, or glide through the air, either with, against, or across the wind, and thus prove aerial navigation is no longer a hopeless enigma, as so many people suppose, but an easily accomplished and practically established fact, wherein the momentum required from the earth attractive force during descents, may be utilized as a direct power to again lift and ad- vance him W. E.

How to Fly.

By "Aerial.^^

The creatures of air and their physi- cal economy, arc most perfect guides to aid man in designing aerial machines, they show him the mode and means, and most effective forms, and where strength, lightness and area of surface can be most advantageously employed, dispensed with, or modified to suit the purpose of man, in his mechanical con- trivances for navigating the air.

While it is conceded that there must always be a great disparity between the sim- plicity of design and construction, and the economical capabilities of the absolutely per- fect animated natural machine and man's best efforts to imitate them, yet repeated trials with primitive experimental models up to practical machines, have demonstrated that mqn can quite easily and efficiently per- form gliding flights, after the manner of sea- birds, when sailing on expanded wings.

From a careful study of the unerring

science of nature which has been persever- ingly watched and interrogated with patience to learn the secret of flight, much useful in- formation has been acquired, and the writers believe that man, by mechanical contrivances, can navigate the air after the manner of large sea birds. A properly constructed aero-surface supported by a thread, will ad- vance with or against the wind, according to the inclination of its surfaces and the posi- tion of its low down center of gravity rela- tive to the center axis of the system. This little experiment appears to prove that a bird can travel against the wind, or in any other direction, in a wind or still air, with very trifling muscular effort. One success- ful little experiment of this nature is worth far more than volumes of theories. The proof of this aspiring properly in suspended inhert surfaces suitably balanced in a light wind, can be easily demonstrated anywhere, at trifling cost by suitably mounting on a light frame, the extended wings of a bird or a stuffed bird, rigidly set as in flight.

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Laws and Conditions Governing Prac- tical Airships.

By "Aerial.''

Man, aided by nature's laws and mechani- cal contrivances, already excels in strength, fleetness and endurance, all the animals of the earth, and all the fish of the sea, and there is no known reason why, he should not likewise, excel all the winged creatures of the atmosphere, and thus dominate over all the denizens of the earth, the air and the sea, imdisputed lord of creation.

The navigation of the air by man should be far less a miracle than his riding a bicy- cle. It may appear incredible, but he is constantly performing infinitely more mar- velous, miracles than navigate the air as a bird.

In nature we find creatures that can rapid- ly travel in the exceedingly dense medium water, as well as in the light subtile atmos- phere, as the fiying fish, and we know of many aquatic rapid flying birds, that can dive and travel considerable distances under, as well as upon, the surfaces of water, as the duck, and why should not man do all these things ? The laws of nature do not prevent him. If such performances as the flying fish and duck were not familiar facts, a naturalist first making the statement would be ridiculed, and

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skeptics would ask, as to what becomes of, or from whence do these creatures derive the difference in their specific gravity, to ad- mit of their performing such miracles f

Movements equivalent to those of bird flight are common to all the creatures that swim in water, fly in the air, or travel on the earth's surface. For instance, a man when walking a level road lifts his body upward and pushes himself forward at every step, thereby throwing his center of gravity in advance of his axis, and only when motion- less is he in equilibrium. A bird in flap- ping horizontal flight, also moves its center of gravity upward and forward with every depression of its wings ; while the fish with adjusted fins and working tail, advances and raises its center of gravity as it propels itself horizontally through the water. To change the direction of their course, the man, the bird and the fish, as all other living creatures, move their centers of gravity accordingly, and more or less to one side, and in the direction they wish to turn, as also in their ascending and descending movements, they correspondingly advance or drawback their centers of gravity in proportion to the angle they desire to travel above or below the hcrizontal ; as a man when walking up hill throws his body increasingly forward, as the grade of the hill increases, and when walk- ing down hill inclines his body and center of gravity increasingly backward as the de- scending grade increases. All these bodies are far more unstable than any well designed aerial machine need be.

The laws governing the movements of all living creatures, whether in the air, or sea, or on the earth's surface, need not be de- viated from in the least, in a well designed airship, and man's mechanical contrivances should be able to perform sailing flight equally as fleetly, safely and almost as effi- ciently as the strongest and most rapid fliers. The bird to arrest its forward mo- tion inc -eases its horizontal resistance by depressing or elevating its tail, at the same time drawing back its center of gravity and its axis. No great skill would be needed to equip an aerial machine with a like appendage to serve the same purpose.

No animated creature or inaminate body, having a fixed center of gravity, or in perfect equilibrium, can find support in the air, or in water, for any appreciable time, therefore the advocates of the theory, that a fixed cen-

ter of gravity and perfect equilibrium are es- sential to flight, are at variance with the evidence of nature, and not in accord with successful demonstrations made to test the theory. The successful aerial machine will be vastly more stable than a bicycle, and man will much more readily learn to rely on it for support rnd safe transit, for the r=t^^y.i that his center of gravity will be placed below the center of support, where he can more easily, conveniently and safely rock his sup- porting aeroplane surface than he could main- tain his balance on a bicycle or rock a canoe on the water.

The most practical and efficient aerial ma- chine will be one instinctively controlled by its intelligent ballast, the aeronaut, who will be located low down, and near the center axis of the system, so that by instinct or design he can move to alter the set of his aeroplane surfaces, and SC' vary their resis- tance. The movements will be made as quickly and unconsciously as a person when walking, trips and recovers his balance, or places one foot before the other.

On these lines strange as it may appear, aerial ship-builders wi 1 design and construct, and aeronauts will launch and navigate, aerial crafts of one-man capacity up to, and even greater tonnage, or cargo-carrying capacity, than the largest vessels now traversing the seas.

Digest of Recent Aeronautical Litera- ture.

THAT AIRSHIP. There are those who are ready to believe that the partial success of Santos-Dumont in navigating a dirigible balloon is the first step toward a revolution, in the present cen- tury, such as the world has never witnessed. Dumcnt has propelled, under perfect control, his balloon, or airship, a mile, say. Extend that success to cover ten miles, or the range of the largest guns, and what does it mean?

The End cf War.

What will battleships, fortifications, armies amount to, if a machine is perfected which can- drop tons of explosives upon them, unper- ceived, in the night? How useless and in- effectual all land and water armaments for offense and defense, when wholesale destruc-

THE AERONAUTICAL WORLD.

tion can be carried about in the night over- head !

At first though it might seem that war might be transferred to the air overhead and battles be fought between the airships of nations, in- stead of by their battleships and armies. But the room overhead is limitless for the opera- tion of aerial navigators. While an aerial battle was going on, a detached airship could destroy a nation. In short, the possibilities of destruction in a single airship would destroy destruction itself, by the common consent of all humanity, and the perfection of such an airship would be the signal for the unanimous decision and agreement of the nations to not use such in war.

But the knowledge of such a means of com- plete destruction would exist; and, hence, no nation knowing that it was safe, all nations would turn from war as a recourse for the ac- quisition of territory or commercial advan- tages, and for the settlement of disputes. This means the end of war, and Mars must trade his sword for a hC'C and his shield for a bushel basket.

The end of war ! Sit down a minute. Dear Reader, and imagine, if you can, all that this would signify. Think how many millions of people are poor and needy because battleships, fortifications, standing armies, and pension lists are costly. Think of the saving in human lives. Think of the prevention of human mis- ery which the ending of war would mean. But this would be only one feature of the rev- olution.

Eliminate war, and the nations must turn to close, amicable intercourse. The brother- hood of man will include all men. Evil will be fought less, the good more earnestly, in- telligently and unitedly worked for. Bayonets will be turned into plowshares. The school house and the church will di e-tly, visibly and powerfully dominate the affairs of the world as never before in all history. The average of human comfort and happiness the world over will rise with great leaps, for it is nations' and individuals' ability and oppor- tunity to take advantage over their fellows that create distinctions and dififerences.

The difference between what Santos-Dumont has done and wdiat may be done in the com- paratively near future is great. But, had a Santos-Dumont, 50 years ago, told the wisest thinkers, scientists and mechanics, I will ride without steam or animal power, overland, from St. Louis to New York; I will, in Paris,

at II a. m, deliver a message in Boston at 5 a. m. of the same day ; I will, in Chicago, talk with Cleveland, by word of voice ; I will light the City of Cincinnati, without candle, gas, petroleum or bonfire; I will make Niagara Falls turn machinery at Hamilton, Ont. ; I will fly around Eiffel tower, he would proba- bly have been locked up as a harmless idiot. But these wonderful things, even in the in- fancy of our knowledge of electricity, can be and are done.

Is it not reasonable to believe that Santos- Dumont's little success are the forerunners of that mighty revolution referred to above, with its grand