IMPACT: International Journal of Research in Applied, Natural and Social Sciences (IMPACT: IJRANSS)

ISSN (P): 2347-4580; ISSN (E): 2321-8851

Vol. 9, Issue 10, Oct 2021, 1-10

© Impact Journals

BIOSTIMULANT EFFECT OF SEAWEED LIQUID EXTRACT ON CAPSICUM ANNUUM

T. Vijayalekshmi' & F. Brisca Renuga®

‘Research Scholar, Department of Zoology, Holy Cross College, Nagercoil, Affiliated to Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Abishekapatti, Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu, India

“Associate Professor, Department of Zoology, Holy Cross College, Nagercoil, Affiliated to Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Abishekapatti, Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu, India

Received: 06 Oct 2021 Accepted: 09 Oct 2021 Published: 11 Oct 2021

ABSTRACT

The present study pot experiment was conducted to identify the potential of Sargassum wightii seaweed liquid extracts

were given to the tested plant in form of foliar spray.

The presence of micro and macro nutrients ,vitamins, growth hormones and other constituents in the seaweed extract might be very much useful to the crops and also the liquid seaweed extracts could serve as eco-friendly product for

sustainable agriculture. KEYWORDS: Seaweed Extract, Sargassum Wightii, Capsicum Annum, Plant Immunity INTRODUCTION

Agriculture is the backbone of our country .Organic agriculture is a holistic production management system which promotes and enhances agro-ecosystem health including biodiversity, biological cycles, and soil biological activity. Synthetic fertilizers were used widely in the days of agricultural purposes which had led to cause severe health and environmental hazards such as soil erosion, water concentration, pesticide poisoning, water logging, salinization, depletion of biodiversity, etc. Thus ,farmers are switching over to organic fertilizers for sustainable agriculture .Manure derived from living resources is biodegradable,

nontoxic, non-polluting and non-hazardous to soil ecosystem. (Dhargalkar.V.K.et al., 2005).

Seaweeds are the macroscopic marine algae found attached to the bottom in relatively shallow coastal water. Liquid fertilizers derived from natural sources like seaweeds are found to be viable alternatives to fertilizing input for agricultural crops due to its high level of organic matter, micro and macro elements, vitamins, fatty acids and also rich in

growth regulators. (Crouch U.et al.,1993).

Seaweed extract is a new generation of natural organic fertilizers containing highly effective nutritious source and promotes faster germination of seeds, increase in yield and resistant ability of seaweeds increases humus content of the

soil, thereby ameliorating the soil texture and preservation of its moisture.

The extracts of brown seaweed are widely used in the horticulture and agricultural crops for their plant growth promoting effects and for their ameliorating effect on crop tolerance to abiotic stress. Macroalgae are characterized by producing large array of biologically active biocidal substances against plant infecting pathogens .These macroalgae can be generally considered as promoting multifunctional bioinoculants and eco-friendly environmental tools in recent trends of

organic farming.

Species like Fucus, Laminaria, Sargassum are used as biofertilizer in Agriculture .The brown alga have a source

of potash and iodine, while bromine is sourced from red seaweed (Prescott., 1984).

In recent years the use of natural seaweed products as substitutes to the conventional synthetic fertilizers has assumed importance. Thus, the extracts are applied to improve nutritional status, vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality

in crop plants.

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the fertilizing efficiency of brown seaweed liquid extracts of

Sargassum wightii liquid extracts on Capsicum annum. MATERIALS AND METHODS

Preparation of Seaweed Liquid Extracts (SLE)

The marine alga Sargassum wightii belongs to Phaeophyceae was collected from seashore area of Subashnagarbeach, Porbandar, Gujarat. The alga was brought to the laboratory and washed thoroughly in tap water for 3 times to remove all epiphytes, sand particles and associate dfauna. The wet weight of sample of collected brown alga was taken, shadow dried and then the sample dry weight was determined. Different concentrations of boiled extracts were prepared by mixing appropriate level of liquid extracts with tap water. The SLE concentrations used in this experiment were ranged from 0.5%,

1.0%,1.5%,2.0% ,and control.

Figure 1: Sargassum Wightii Seaweed. Selection of Test Plant

The test plant selected for the present study was Capsicum annum. The seeds were collected from dried Capsicum annum

only one matured reddish coloured chilly used. Growth promoting efficiency of SLE on Capsicum annum seedlings:

Healthy seeds free from visible infection, with uniform size were segregated and soaked in seaweed extract for 1

hour.

Earthen ware pots 25 cm diameter filled with soil. The seed to seed distance in pot was maintained as 3-5 cm and

the pots were irrigated regularly.

Vegetative Growth parameters of Capsicum annum (Pot study)

Seed germination: Germination test determines the percentage of seeds that are alive in any seed lot. While the rate of germination varies slightly across varieties, seeds should absorb moisture with 2 days and produce a root and the

first leaf within 4 days. In Capsicum annuum the germination percentage was calculated using this formula:

Germination (%) = Number of seeds germinated

Number of seeds on apot Physico -chemical and hormone analysis of SLE:

The Physical characteristics such as colour, pH were observed using standard method. The composition of elements such as Copper, Manganese, Iron, Zinc, Nitrogen, Potassium, Magnesium and Sodium were estimated using 450nm at spectrophotometer. Further, the liquid extract of marine alga was also subjected for estimation of auxin, gibberlin

and cytotoxin.

Test Selected Plant

Scientific Classification: Kingdom: Plantae Clade:Tracheophytes Clade: Angiosperms Clade:Eudicots Clade:Asterids Order:Solanales Family:Solanaceae Genus:Capsicum Species: Capsicum annum Binomial name: Capsicum annum

Foliar application of different concentrations 0.5%,1.0%,1.5%,2.0% and control of liquid extracts was given to potted plants for 20 days. Growth parameters shoot length, root length, total height, total fresh and dry weight, leaf area

and moisture content were determined.

Growth parameters shoot length, root length, total height, total fresh and dry weight leaf area and moisture content

were determined.

Growth parameters were observed in 5 weeks old treated and control plants. Yield characteristics were measured

in 90 days old plants .All pot experiments were done in four replicates each under natural conditions.

FRESH AND DRY WEIGHT

Uprooted plants were washed with distilled water and it was blotted with blotting paper to check the fresh weight of the

plant. It was then shade dried to obtain the dry weight of the sample. Leaf Area: Fresh leaves were taken plucked from the plant and were subjected for the analysis of leaf area. RESULT

Table 1: Seed Germination

20%

Control

9 days 2 0.5% 6 days 10 100% 1.0% 6 days 10 100% 1.5% 6 days 7 10% 2.0% 6 days 3 30%

Influence of liquid extracts of Sargassum wightii on growth seed germination of Chilli plant (Capsicum annum)

Table 2: Influence of Liquid Extracts on Growth Characteristics of Chilly Plant

‘eatments hoo eneth i

Control 14cm 7.5cm 0.5% 60cm 15cm 1.0% 40cm 14.5cm 1.5% 18cm 1llcm 2.0% 25cm 12cm

Figure 1: Seaweed Liquid Extract Control, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0% Treated Capsicumannum (30days) Plant.

Table 3: I

e nts brancnes 1 _ Fru Control No branches 19 flowers 16fruits

9 seeds )

0.5% 10 branches 65flowers(96 days flower appear) | 58 fruits 45 seeds

1.0% 6 branches 52flowers(122 days flower appear) | 46 fruits 34 seeds

1.5% 2 branches 32flowers(148 days flower appear) | 26fruits 22seeds

2.0% 2 branches op Teyana o2daye Towel 23 fruits 20seeds appears)

Biostimulant Effect of Seaweed Liquid Extract on Capsicum Annuum

Table 4: Influence of Liquid Extract of Sargassum Wightii on Yield

Control 16 7.2cm 0.5% 58 13cm 1.0% 46 13.5cm 1.5% 26 12.2cm 2.0% 23 12.0cm

“+e - Ss.

. es SS = Figure 2: Seaweed Liquid Extract (0.5%) Treated Capsicum Annuum Plant.

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T. Vijayalekshmi & F. Brisca Renuga

3 Mies Figure 3: Shows Growth of Control Capsicum Annum Plant.

Yd Figure 4: Seaweed Extract 2.0% Treated Plant.

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Figure 5: Seaweed Extract 1.5% Treated Capsicum Annum Plant.

Table 5: Physicochemical Chemical Parameter Analysis Report of Seaweed Liquid Extract

pH 71.9

Colour Brown colour Cu 1.8mg/1 Zn 1.6mg/1

Nitrogen 7 Amg/| Ca 8.2mg/1 Mg 15.7mg/l

K 1.41 mg/l

Na 5.3mg/1 Mn 1.53mg/l Fe 0.76mg/1

The manurial analysis of liquid extracts of our experimental brown marine alga revealed the presence of Potassium1.41mg/l,Copperl.8mg/l,Manganese 1.53mg/1,Zinc 1.6mg/l,lon 0.76smg/l,Sodium 5.3mg/l,and Magnesium

15.7mg/1 was found to be abundant in the extract.

Similarly, in case of phytohormones analysis,cytokinin5.Smg/lwas found to be more when compared to auxin

2.5mg/l and gibberellins2.8mg/1.

In our experiments, use of seaweed liquid extracts of Sargassum wightii significantly promoted the rate of growth and physiology of Capsicum annuum plant. There was a noticeable increase in growth and biochemical parameters when 0.5%,and 1.0% of seaweed liquid extract of Sargassum wightii applied to Capsicum annuum plant higher concentrations were found to show inhibiting effect on all the above parameters studied. Further, the retarding effect(reduction by (reduction by 2%-27%)in growth parameters was corresponding to increase in the concentration 2.0%.In the present study younger plants are killed by the seaweed extract. After 20 days of seedling only first irrigate with normal water then

applied the seaweed liquid extract. Inhibitive effect was observed when the plants were treated with higher concentration 2.0%.

In general, low concentrations of liquid extracts of seaweed extracts had maximum positive influence on growth and yield characteristics of plant Capsicum annuum as reported in previous studies due to the presence of micro and macro elements, growth hormones and vitamins. Further ,presence of phycocolloids and other ingredients in brown algae may

also be responsible for better enhancement in growth and yield production.

Seaweed Liquid Extract (SLE) at low concentrations 0.5%,1.0% exhibited promoting effect on growth and yield

parameters. Higher concentrations 2.0%SLE were found to show inhibitory effect. DISCUSSION

The lower concentration 0.5% of seaweeds extract significantly increased the shoot length, leaf breadth, leaf length, root

length. Sargassum wightii promoted shoot length, root length, fresh and dry weight respectively.(Durand.N.et al.,2003).

Growth enhancement by seaweed extracts may be due to components such as macro and microelement, amino acids, vitamins, cytokinins, auxins and abscisic acid-like growth substances which affects cellular metabolism in treated

plants leading to enhanced growth and crop yield. (Ordog.V.Stirk .W.A.et al.,2004).

The increased growth of these crops may be due to the occurrence of some growth promoting substances present

in the seaweed extract.(Blunden.G.et al.,1997).

These hormones play an important role in enhancement of cell size and cell division and together they complement each other as cytokinins are effective in shoot formation and Auxin in root development, while micronutrient improve soil health. (Liu.Z.,Lijun.,2011.)Yield increases in seaweed extract treated plants are through to be associated with hormonal substances present in the extracts, especially cytikinins. Cytokinins have been implicated in nutrient mobilization

in vegetative plant organs as well as reproductive organs.(Letham.D.S., 1994). CONCLUSIONS

The use of seaweed extracts has been widely reported to enhance the plant growth vigour and productivity and improve resistance to pest and diseases.In seaweeds and the extracts are an alternative agricultural input endowed with multiple beneficial effects on plant growth and productivity. In this study also emphasizes that seaweed extracts were recently found

to boost plant immunity.

The seaweed extract have now gained much wider acceptance as plant “biostimulants”’.

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